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I remember several years back I heard something that changed my life forever. Up ...

I remember several years back I heard something that changed my life forever. Up until that point I had been struggling through life ? doing everything the hard way. I couldn? figure out why my life wasn? going the way I felt it should be. I saw some people going through life effortlessly and seemingly with less tension and frustration while I was wondering if I could ever straighten out the mess my life had turned out to be. I was behind on my dreams, my promises, and my bills.

Then one day I was listening to a tape and the lady was talking about the power of having dreams and goals and all of the other stuff that those motivational speakers talk about. By that point I had listened to hundreds of such tapes, but it seemed as if nothing worked for me. Probably the only reason I was listening to that one was because I had developed a habit of listening to cassette tapes while driving my car. The statement the lady said was simple and I think I had even heard it somewhere before but this time a light bulb went on in my head.

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I remember stopping the tape and rewinding it over and over again to hear the 17 words she said. I couldn? believe it was so basic and simple. I was looking for something sophisticated and complicated. I thought I had to attend a $10,000 seminar. I didn? know I could find it on a $10 tape program. I? taking the time to tell you all of this preliminary information because when I tell you the 17 words, I really want you to get it and get it NOW! Because if you get it NOW, your life will never be the same.

You will be using the same principle that all who have became wealthy before you have used. Even those who became wealthy and can? tell you how they did use this same principle without even being aware of what they are doing. Well, are you ready for the 17 words that made a powerful and positive impact on my life and on the life of tens of thousands of individuals who have achieved unimaginable success? Of course you are? Well, here they are? For things to change, you must get a picture of what you want them to change to. Yes, it? as simple as it sounds and as easy as it seems?

Don? try to make it any complicated than this because it will only frustrate you. You must know exactly what you want and the more specific and clear you can get, the better. This is important because Human Beings are Teleological in nature? In other words, we move towards the pictures we constantly hold in our minds. Let me give you an example? Suppose you went to the store and bought a 1,000-piece jigsaw puzzle but it didn? have a picture on the box of what the end result should look like. Would you have a much harder time putting the picture together? Of course.

You may eventually figure it out; however, the person who has a clear picture of what the end result should look like will be more than 100 times ahead of you. The question is are they 100 times ahead of you because their IQ is 100 times greater? Is it because they are 100 times better looking than you? Maybe it? because they live 100 times closer to the person who created the puzzle? Ohh, I know ? they were one of the first students to take the Evelyn Woods mind-expanding speed-reading and comprehension course right? If none of this is true then what it?

Yes, the person who had the clear and specific picture of what the outcome was supposed to be was simply operating in accordance to how our brain works. It moves towards the pictures we hold in our mind. It? interesting because once you know exactly what it is you are moving towards, you seem to automatically know the steps to take or the necessary steps will soon become noticeable. Your brain, operating similar to a magnet, will start to attract in your direction the conditions, people, and circumstances that will help you move loser to the mental picture you maintain in your mind and it will repel all of those things that do not correlate to the picture you have in your mind. Therefore, the people who are clear and specific about what they want are using the powers of the Universe to assist them. This is, indeed, an awesome power. A person who knows how and uses this awesome power of the Universe to his or her advantage is a person who is working smart. A person who struggles every day trying to move closer to the success that they have no idea how it? upposed to look is a person who is working hard. Based on your observations over the years, do you think that most people are working hard or working smart? People who just work hard day in and day out without a clear picture of what they are moving towards are about as exciting as a tulip. Even though they may seem to be willing to work hard and put in the hours, they don? seem to have much life in them. And people want to follow people who seem to have some life in them. If they want to find people who don? eem to have much life in them, all they have to do is go to their job. People will follow people who look like they know where they are going and look like they are excited about the journey. You must understand that your strength comes from knowing what you want. This will ignite the fire inside of you and enable you to borrow from the promise of the future so you can engage in the activities today that will move you closer and closer to what you want. It will enable you to go through the trials and tribulations that may be necessary so you can arrive at your destination.

But remember the journey will be more important than the destination because in the journey you will become the person you require to become to finally arrive at your destination. So when you reach your destination, look at the person you have become and set a new destination so you can continue to grow and develop. Whatever you do, just always remember that for things to change, you must get a picture of what you want them to change to. These are the 17 Words that Changed My Life Forever? Why not allow them to change yours too? Until Next time? Go, Go, Go!!!


Table of contents Writing essays is always a challenging task for students. It r ...

Table of contents

Writing essays is always a challenging task for students. It requires lots of concentration, conducting thorough research, providing relevant examples, adding credible references and all the other vital steps. One of the most widely used types of writing that teachers like to give their students is a problem-solution topic. In this article, you will find out about the problem and solution examples, their main steps in writing, and dwell more on the most complicated topics which can be a real challenge even for professional writers. Here you will also find possible ideas about what to write on the controversial problem solution topics. By reading this article, you will find out more about how to write better and get higher marks for your paper.

What is a problem-solution essay?

Whenever you receive the task description for your writing assignment, it is of the utmost importance to know everything about the type of essay. The answer can be hidden in the topic. Read it very carefully and underline all the keywords. If you see that there is some kind of a problem described in the task, and you are asked to provide possible way outs, then you should repeat the problem and solution definitions.

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First of all, it is that type of writing which revolves around one specific theme which is either a local or even a global problem. Your task is to explain this problem, tell why it exists, who or what are the most vulnerable when being under its influence, mention negative or positive consequences. After you have discussed the first part of the essay, which is actually the “problem,” move on to its second part – “solution.” You can conduct a real scientific research to find out the most realistic way outs.

However, do not rely on somebody’s thought all the time. The teachers are usually interested in your ideas and examples. You can use somebody’s point of view and develop it by telling how this solution can be applied on the local level. Only then you can conclude everything you mentioned and finish up your paper. In this article, we are proposing a solution essay topics which will give you lots of ideas to start off.

The most interesting questions for your problem-solution essay

The topic you are writing about is the core of your paper. It is true that there are so many variants of themes to discuss the composition, but why should you bother about which topic is the most interesting. Here we have prepared possible issues for the problem-solution essays. Moreover, we provide you with the possible ideas which will give you a necessary spur for inspiration. The following topics are divided into several main spheres: health, political relationships, nature and ecological problems, social issues.


1. Obesity

Solution 1: What are the common causes of obesity? Does this problem mainly refer to children or adults? Do eating habits change with the age?

Solution 2: Does the lifestyle influence the physical shape? Which activities should people take up to lose weight? Which are the most efficient sports for becoming slim?

Solution 3: Is eating unhealthy food the only reason for obesity? Does stressful lifestyle lead to obesity? What should people do to avoid stress? Should they rest more and pay attention to both mental and physical relaxation?

2. Abortions

Solution 1: What are the reasons which lead to abortions? How can each of these causes be eradicated? Is there a social pressure about early sexual relationships? How can this pressure be lessened? Do social media play a significant role in pushing youngsters to get involved in early sexual relationships?

Solution 2: Should this issue be raised on the level of schools or only at universities? Do families have responsibility for teaching their children that abortion is the same as murder?

Solution 3: How the youth can become better informed about the negative impact of abortions on their future health?

Solution 4: Should women who had an abortion which lead to negative consequences persuade those women who are about to get rid of unborn children.

3. Suicides

Solution 1: Is the problem of suicides more connected with personal traumas or social environment?

Solution 2: How can this problem be prevented? Should there be free psychological consultations available for anyone who needs help?

Solution 3: Are there Internet communities which provoke people to commit suicides? Should the instances with suicides be more discussed in the social media? Should this question be raised on the level of schools, universities?

Solution 4: If the country is undergoing inevitable economic crisis, should the government pay attention to the emotional state of the citizens? Should people organize public demonstrations, flash mobs which promote positive emotions and inspires people to live and create?

4. Euthanasia as religious and social issue

Solution 1: Which religions allow euthanasia and which aim for banning it?

Solution 2: Should the viewpoints of those who are seriously ill be taken into consideration or should relatives make a choice for the ill?

Solution 3: How can this problem be discussed at schools, universities? Does this issue require the governmental intrusion?

Political relationships

5. The risk of World War III

Solution 1: Which global organizations raise the questions of the world peace? What are their roles? Do they manage to meet the requirements of their core aims? Do we need more organizations which are responsible for avoiding World War III and local military conflicts?

Solution 2: Does nuclear weaponry increase the risks of wars? How can other countries be persuaded to abandon nuclear weapon?

Solution 3: Should citizens of all countries be more informed about the true political situations of other states? How can the information be checked on plausibility?

Solution 4: Does Information War exist in our modern-day world? What is the role of mass media in this Information War? How can people be taught to perceive any information they read or hear more critically?

6. Science is both an advancement and a huge threat

Solution 1: What are the most significant developments in science? Can they somehow trigger negative consequences?

Solution 2: Which scientific inventions have the detrimental effect on the world in general and each individual in particular?

Solution 3: How should scientists/ordinary people/government prevent the deleterious impact of scientific breakthrough?

7. Asylum seekers

Solution 1: What are the main reasons for people to leave their motherlands to find a better place to live? Should asylum seekers have the same rights as the native citizens?

Solution 2: Should governments allow asylum seekers have a job, study at universities and get scholarships? How can the government prevent social criticism of asylum seekers when they become members of a local community?

Solution 3: What are the main reasons for asylum seekers to be perceived as a negative phenomenon? How can the society teach others that when living in another country people have to be obedient and pay attention to the local laws?

Solution 4: Do asylum seekers need to prove that they will not break the law and become responsible residents? Must all of them get asylums and protection or must there be any restrictions?

Nature and ecological problems

8. Cars as the main cause of air pollution

Solution 1: What are the main reasons for air pollution? What are the causes of the greenhouse effect? What are the main occasions when people have to use cars? Are all vehicles equipped with the eco-friendly technologies such as electric cars? Should the government encourage and help financially other people to use electricity instead of petrol?

Solution 2: Why don’t people prefer public transports which are more environmentally friendly? Should the government spend more money on improving the conditions of public means of transportation?

Solution 3: Do all countries and cities have proper cycling infrastructure? Which competitions, parades, social events can be organized to promote riding a bicycle instead of using cars?

9. Endangered species

Solution 1: How can we raise the public awareness about the problem of endangered species?

Solution 2: Are there any organizations which provide special treatment for the animals in danger of extinction? Which organizations should be added? What types of aims should they have?

Solution 3: What is the role of hunting in influencing the spread of endangered species? Should the hunting be banned? Should people who shoot endangered animals be fined?

Solution 4: What is the purpose of zoos? What are their advantages and disadvantages? Should all animals be kept in zoos? What is the difference between zoos and nature reserves? How should the environment and conditions look like in the ideal place for keeping endangered species?

Social problems

10. Games with violence

Solution 1: What are the most popular games which include protagonists killing others, destroying nations, developing weaponry? Why do such games attract people? Should the government ban such type of games?

Solution 2: Are parents responsible for allowing their children to play violent games on computers? How can they persuade them to play more peaceful games? What can serve as motivation for children to change the type of their activity?

Solution 3: Can violent games become a hidden cause of bullying at school and aggressive behavior? Which more positive types of games should be encouraged to play? How can such games impact on children’s psychological development?

11. Bullying at school

Solution 1: Should teachers organize extracurricular classes which are about the main rules of pupil’s behavior, make such classes in a creative way with philosophical meaning?

Solution 2: Should parents be involved in discussing the problem of bullying?

Solution 3: Should children who behave aggressively be expelled from school? Should there be a punishment for those who trigger fights?

12. The Disabled people within the community

Solution 1: Is there a social pressure and discrimination towards the disabled people? In which situation this arrogant attitude can be noticed?

Solution 2: Do all countries have proper public transportations, elevators and other necessary equipment on the streets for the disabled? If not, how the community can attract the government’s attention to this problem?

Solution 3: Should the disabled people be encouraged to participate in sports competitions, talent shows? How can ordinary people help invalids feel more comfortable in public? Should this equal attitude be nurtured in kids since childhood?

13. Lack of interpersonal communications

Solution 1: How do modern technologies such as the Internet, social networks, mobile phones influence the way we communicate with each other? Is this impact negative or positive?

Solution 2: Should children be taught that interpersonal communication is more significant then online chatting? Who is responsible for explaining this to children?

Solution 3: Does social media influence the way we perceive modern communication? Which are the negative aspects of modern communication? Is it emotionless? What is the role of body language and is it neglected when using online chats?

Solution 4: How does face-to-face communication differ from online chatting? What does the modern means of communication lack? Which of the two options involve emotional devolution?

14. Divorces

Solutions 1: Do most divorces happen when people get married in a short time after dating? Do people have to take the notion of marriage more seriously?

Solution 2: What is the role of mass media, modern films, soap operas in the formation of family values? Do current TV shows promote happy marriages or state that divorce is a typical situation?

Solution 3: Should there be special courses for young families? What should be included in the curriculum of such family preparation courses?

Solution 4: What is the role of the parent’s personal examples? Are there any statistics which show that those couples whose parents are divorced don’t keep marriage for long?

15. The problem of racism

Solution 1: What are the historical events which triggered the problem of racism?

Solution 2: Should there be organizations which invite people of different races to live in another country? Should people try to put themselves in other’s shoes to understand how it is to be criticized only for a color of skin?

Solution 3: Is this problem discussed enough on the international level? Should the racism be banned in all countries? Should racists be fined for their prejudice?

Which topic to choose?

The aforementioned possible themes for your problem solution essay example with the offered solutions can serve as a good starting point for your writing. The enumerated solutions can be even a plan for your future outline.

Choose that topic which is the most understandable for you. Think of the examples which you can add, read the solutions to get the key idea what to write about. Don’t forget to do a bit of research to investigate the problem more thoroughly. Unless you have time, rely on the solutions, read them carefully, and write down the answers. You can try brainstorming technique when answering the questions. Having a brief outline, you will quickly write the whole essay.



10/23/11 1984 critical analysis In the novel 1984 by George Orwell a man named W ...

10/23/11 1984 critical analysis In the novel 1984 by George Orwell a man named Winston lives within a dis-utopian society. People within this society keep their emotions non-noticeable because if they go against what the inner circle is teaching than that person would work manually labor for the rest of their life. In the story a party known as the inner circle uses a few slogans and sayings to control everything. The inner circle uses all that they say to brainwash people into believing what they are saying is true.

The inner party’s slogans are “War is peace, Freedom is Slavery, and Ignorance is strength” By using these phrases one can see that the inner circle can manipulate everyone into believing in what the inner circle tells them to believe in. The first slogan “War is peace” The inner circle has this slogan to convince people that there is no such thing as peace. The inner party seems to get people to believe they are in a constant state of war. When they are not fighting one country they are fighting the other.

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The inner party uses this constant state to their advantage; the inner party uses this state to keep the people always occupy with a war and to keep them from thinking about rising up against the government. Examples of the constant state of war, one is the proles are constantly being bombed. With this slogan it gives people a sense of anxiety keeping them scared and to make them think that Big Brother is taking care of them and will look out for them, and protect them. The second slogan “Freedom is Slavery”, the inner party is trying to control everyone and getting them to hate every other country.

This slogan means that to have freedom is to be a slave, which in American eyes is a big lie. The inner party puts out the slogan for people to understand it is much better to be under Big Brother than it is to be your own individual and have freedom to decide what they would like to do; But to the people in this dis-utopia society believe that Big Brother is for them and not only that but they have been spoon fed their whole lives and they would not know what to do even if they had freedom.

The people in this society that would have some sense of what freedom is, is the proles because the inner circle doesn’t really care about them. The third slogan is “Ignorance is strength”. The Meaning of Ignorance is the lack of Knowledge, Not knowing and for not knowing to be strength it does not make very much sense. The phrase “Knowing is half the battle “ would never come into play. In many cases to win a battle is to know what the army is up against. Not knowing is how the inner circle keeps any rebels from rebelling because they don’t know what they are up against.

Throughout the book the inner circle is kept a secret but it is known that it is there. In the book Winston believes that Big Brother is not real and does not exist. The inner circle also retells history the way they want it told and they teach it this way to keep the people from knowing what truly is happening in the world around them. After all the slogans one of the sayings the inner circle uses is “Big Brother is Watching You” This society uses this poster to add to the anxiety and fear of the people.

The sign has this saying and above it is a face that looks similar to Hitler. This poster is posted everywhere within the society. This saying echoes throughout ones mind to give them a sense of being constantly watched and they have to pay attention to everything they do. This saying is not entirely false either in this society people are always looking out at people waiting and watching for them to slip up. The inner circle also uses telescreeens within each room to watch over what the person is doing and also the telescreen has no off switch.

Winston has his telescreen in a location so he has a corner where he can write what ever he wants in his illegal journal. The inner circle uses it’s own people to for it’s eyes in the society because it uses the true followers to catch all the people who would go against. The inner circle also use kids as spies. They use the kids to spy on the parents within the home to make sure they do not go against the inner party. The inner circle turns their own people on each other so not only they look to catch each other but they also have no big groups to conspire with.

In Comparison of the three slogans the number one thing they all have in common is they are all false and are all contradictions of each other; “War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, and Ignorance is strength. ” Each slogan has it’s own purpose and reason to help the inner circle to control everybody to make sure they do not rise up against the inner party. If someone does go against the inner party the inner party sends their “task force” in to take that person and to have them do manually labor for the rest of their life. Which having the Thought Police a. k. “task force” in the mix of everything adds even more anxiety and fear into the people of this society. In truth the inner circle uses fear and repeats the slogans to get people brainwashed into believing everything the inner circle is telling them. The inner circle uses all of the sayings to manipulate and control everyone to be on their side. The inner party has these slogans to make sure everyone can’t go against them. The inner party rules with fear and is kept a secret, and repeats everything to make sure it is brainwashed into believing everything they are told.

In many cases if someone repeats something over and over they would believe it to be true. If someone repeated that 2 + 2 = 5 eventually they would start to question if it is true and then soon the person would believe it is true and trick themselves that they are right in which 2 + 2 = 5. Which is the same way with Winston in which eventually he gave into the ways of the inner circle and he started to love Big Brother who he despised at the beginning of the book. This same process manipulated Winston into going into the ways and is brainwashed into believing everything he is told.


2×2 Packet Switch SimulationContents PageAim 1. 2 MethodologyObjectivesBackgrou ...

2×2 Packet Switch Simulation

Contents Page

  1. Aim 1. 2 Methodology
  2. Objectives
  3. Background
  4. Performance Evaluation
  5. Measurement
  6. Analysis/Simulation
  7. Packet Switched Networks
  8. Introduction
  9. Theory
  10. Queuing Theory
  11. Queuing Model
  12. Concept of a queuing model
  13. Queuing theory notation
  14. The M/M/1 Queue
  15. The M/D/1 Queue
  16. Switching
  17. Switching Concept
  18. Internal Link Blocking
  19. Output Port Contention
  20. Head Of Line Blocking
  21. Time Between Arrivals
  22. Counting Arrivals
  23. The Queuing Behaviour Of Packets In Output Buffers
  24. Calculating The State Probability Distribution
  25. Analytical /Simulation Results
  26. 2×2 Switch
  27. Analytical Results
  28. Simulation Results
  29. 4×4 Switch
  30. Analytical Results
  31. Simulation Results
  32. 8×8 Switch
  33. Analytical Results
  34. Simulation Results
  35. 16×16 Switch
  36. Analytical Results
  37. Simulation Results
  38. Conclusion
  39. Project Management
  40. Risk Analysis
  41. Gant Chart
  42. References

Interim report 2×2

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Packet Switch Simulation Using Matlab

Test out a simulation on fundamental 2×2 switch element. Then expand it. Learn about Matlab. Learn about simulation.  Build a simple test model and try it. Build a 2×2 element in Matlab.  Simulate any new results required? Write a report. When networks are designed, the goal of the performance evaluation is to determine the best effect of the equipment sed. Methods for performance evaluation are measurement techniques, analysis, and simulation.  Measurement For measurement methods real networks is used for experimentation. The advantage of direct measurement of network performance is that no detail of network operation is excluded but experience hard to test performance limits. Customers won’t like it when you crash the system.

Analysis/ Simulation

In comparing analysis and simulation, the main factors to consider are the accuracy of results, the time to produce results, and the overall cost of using the method. The advantage of analytical solutions is that they are quite a good fit for reality and produces results quickly. However, assumptions required to define equations and parameters and they can be very complex. Simulation provides system representation to the required precision. However, simulation can be time and cost demands. In a packet-switched network, all nodes interconnected by directed links. Packets are routed independently. Packets enter the network at a specific node where they may be queued in a buffer to wait for an outgoing channel to become free. This continued in a hop by hop manner until the packets finally arrive at their destination. Packets may arrive at the same destination by taking different routes. That increases the efficiency of transmission resources. Also queued packets in the buffer will cause a variable delay and throughput, depending on traffic load. Basic network is shown in figure 1.

Figure 1: Packet Switched Network 3.


Contention in a switch affects the performance of a switch. To prevent this some switching techniques are developed. One of the most common switching techniques is the one with an output-buffered switch. In this report, the queuing process of performance evaluation, for such a switch is done analytically first than simulation analysis is done using Matlab. At the end of the report comparison of the two results is done.


Queuing Theory Analysis of the queuing process is basic and essential part of the performance evaluation. Because queues are formed in a network when there is a high demand for limited resources.  Queuing Model Packets arrive at a queuing system to be served for a certain time. If service is not immediately available they wait for service in a storage area (buffer). After a certain length of time, they are served and leave the system. The basic queuing system is shown in the figure.


When 3D printing was first released to the mass market it wasn’t soon after th ...

When 3D printing was first released to the mass market it wasn’t soon after that the medical world wanted to take advantage of the printer’s diverse capabilities. Researchers in the medical field have begun exploring all the possibilities for this machine and the most promising medical application for 3D printers happens to be artificial organs. Scientists and doctors are looking at this type of printing as a solution to the organ shortage for transplants that is plaguing the United States of America and the rest of the World.

On average the wait time for a kidney is typically two-and-a-half years and as an effect of this the patient may have already been pronounced dead by the time they would’ve received the organ. Obviously this is a huge issue and the medical field is desperate for alternatives to real organs as too many people are dying to something that could be prevented and most likely will because of 3D printing. The projected time for an artificial organ transplant would be drastically less because the organ would most likely be on standby because the artificial organs won’t have an ‘expiration date’ unlike real organs. This is way better compared to the regular transplant list because patients would have to wait less time to receive an organ designed for them. The only limiting factor of this process is the number of surgeons available in hospitals to perform the operation. The word known for 3D printing organs is bioprinting.

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Bioprinting is an extension of traditional 3D printing. Bioprinting can produce bone, living tissue, blood vessels and, potentially, whole organs for use in medical procedures, training and testing. This method includes the use of cells when printing a new organ and it’s also the method used for getting the organs to function. At the moment with the current research and technology bioprinting may take up to eight weeks as it’s a complicated process. But with more scientists and researchers looking into it the process may be drastically shorter in the future. At first, researchers scan the patients organ to determine the personalized size and shape. Then they create a scaffold to give cells something to grow on in three dimensions and then add cells from the patient to this scaffold. That is the part of the work that is difficult and most time consuming. In order to make the organs they tell a computer the size and shape they need using x, y, and z coordinates.

With this process scientists can make organs or other parts of the body for just about anything or anyone no matter the size. This new method allows scientist to place cells in a very precise way using the printer. Even though there have been successful studies and lots of research being done, bioprinting is still something that requires more research and studies to be done for it to be possible. The bioprinting technology needs to be improved. The resolution and speed of the printers need to be increased as well as being more compatible with biocompatible materials. Higher resolution will enable the printer to be more accurate when printing as wells as the scientists, this may also allow for better control. The increase in speed of the printers will allow for patients to receive they’re custom made organ a lot quicker than it would be if scientists tried bioprinting now. Another issue is we don’t have access to many biocompatible solutions that work with the bioprinters at the moment, but that may change later on.

The most promising advancements in this field of complex technology has been done by companies like Cellink who are developing many bioprinters and bioinks. The bioinks are very complicated and allow the construction of skin, cartilage, muscle, and bone. There are also more mobile options such as the biopen, a mobile bioprinter which allows the user to actually draw new cells capable of repairing bones and cartilage. The biopen was developed by Australian surgeons to make bone repair easier and quicker. As you can see now this new type of regenerative medicine is making major bounds in the medical field because of 3D printings capabilities. These two examples truly exhibit the variety of devices that can be created for 3D printing. The company Organovo has successfully made liver tissue but still has lots to learn on making full functions livers. The company is headed in the right direction but there is much to learn on how to print these organs. Some of the organs in the body have over 500 different functions that they can perform.

That is why it is so difficult to create the organs using 3D printers, because they need to make sure the organs can perform all the functions. They also need to get the cells to work with the biocompatible solutions. Another incredible business is named Poietus, a French biotechnology company that completely specializes in regenerative medicines. Poietis aims to commercialize their new product named poieskin, a 3D printed skin. Poietis is the very first company to ever commercialize a 3D printed skin. The bioprinted skin can be used for ingredient testing, developing brand new drugs, and research to further the science world’s understanding of the largest organ humans have. At the company CELLINK, staff are developing 3D bioinks (material used to print) that contain human cells.They are ultimately looking to make organs. More than 100,000 people in the United States need an organ replacement, but there is a critical shortage. If the company can successfully create bioinks that are capable to print with and actually work, the thousands of people that need organs can receive one.

The research that they’re doing allows them to create almost anything required in the human body. They are hiring experts in biomaterials, chemistry, cell biology, software and robotic engineering to help them with the project. Once they create a bioink the company has already signed contracts with over 40 business to help start creating and distributing organs. When doing a normal transplant the patient needs to find a organ match in order for the body to have a less chance of rejection. There is still a chance of rejections however. When using printers to create organs there is a less chance of rejection. To create these organs, the researchers used a small biopsy of fatty tissue from the patient. They then separated the pluripotent stem cells from any a-cellular materials in the tissue. From there, they gained the ability to create whatever type of tissue they needed. But there are also other factors that they need to consider.

If the patient starts getting an infection from the surgery or new organ they may die. Scientist need to make sure they can eliminate the chance of infection as well as rejections. Doctors and scientist also need to make sure the patient receiving the organ is healthy besides the organ they need so that nothing else may risk the procedure. This revolutionary advancement could be applied to several areas of medicine and pharmacology, including being the basis of replacement organs for transplantation, and also drug discovery and toxicology testing. It has been predicted that 3D printing, in general, will grow at an exponential rate (approx. $10 billion by 2020); the 3D printing market is already estimated to be at $500 million. The problem of organ failure and transplantation needs to be addressed to avert a healthcare crisis, and in this speedy new and improved technique, this may finally be a solution.


Table of contents In the world of manufacturing there are many ways to create th ...

Table of contents

In the world of manufacturing there are many ways to create the desired product. Historically, conventional machining techniques, such as CNC machining or drill presses, are used because of lower operational cost and quicker production rates than advanced machining processes. However, with the advances in technology, material, metallurgical sciences and process design, advanced machining and manufacturing process are quickly closing the gap between conventional machining and advanced manufacturing. Advanced machining mechanical processes are defined as follows : machines that achieves higher surface finish, machines that address the issue of environmental effects of mechanical machining processes, and machines that focuses on high-speed, cryogenic and precision mechanical machining.

An example of an advanced additive machine that is becoming more common in the recent years is the 3D printing machine. The development of the economical 3D printers that are readily available and easy enough to be used by elementary school students has made this machine conventional. However, there are many forms of 3D printing that are far from conventional such as fused deposition modeling (FDM) , material jetting and 3D metal printing. In this report, we will be focusing on metal 3D printing: how the metal 3D printing process works; common metal types used for metal 3D printing and their properties, recent advances in metal 3D printing, the parameters of metal 3D printing and what are its various applications and uses, process modeling and simulation and the possible environmental and health effects.(Frazier and Performance 2014) Before jumping into metal 3D printing, we will need to define some terminology. The two main terms that comes into mind when discussing metal 3D printing are Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Both are metal additive manufacturing processes that belong to the powder bed fusion 3D printing family. Both use laser to scan and fuse the metal powder particles, bonding them together and building the part layer by layer. However the important difference between them is how they produce the parts : SLM produces the parts from a single metal whereas DMLS produces the parts from metal alloys.

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Process Developments

3D metal printing, as is already known from its name, is a subset of 3D printing with the difference between the two being 3D metal printing uses metal to print 3D structures. Similar to 3D printing, 3D metal printing fuses layers of metals together using a laser. While there are many ways to deposit metals, the general process involves filling a 3D printing chamber with an inert gas to minimize the oxidation of the metal powder then heated to the optimal build temperature; this is followed by depositing a thin layer of metal powder and fusing the particles with a laser. This process is controlled by scanning the structure with the laser, and the process is repeated until the desired structure is complete. (Sames, List et al. 2016). Whatever powder is not used, can be recycled for a later use – typically less than 5% of it is wasted. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of a SLM powder-bed process. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of SLM powder-bed process There are numerous exciting latest developments in metal 3D printing and new research is coming out of academia every year where people are using this technology for various printing methods and concepts. One of the recent developments that has come up that is currently being studied is how to use meteorites as a printing material for 3D metal printers.(Lietaert, Thijs et al. 2018)

Typically, the choice of metal is usually aluminum, copper, titanium or other alloys. This idea looks at the prospect of asteroid mining and using this abundant resource to 3D print spare components such as: tools and various microstructures aboard spacecraft during missions, to ensure that any components are optimized for the local microgravity. Researchers have already proven that moon rock can work and another team of researchers have proven the concept of using iron-rich meteorites as a manufacturing material. Although this research needs more work, the team was able to powder the iron meteorites using gas atomization methods and was able to produce a full structural part. The parts did contain some minor defects, but it showcases a new proof of concept that higher density structures could be made in the future. In another different research area, a group of researchers have developed a new 3D metal printing approach with allows nanotwinned copper to be printed for the first time.(Behroozfar, Daryadel et al. 2018)

The approach that this group used was vulnerable ery unique: use a microscale 3D printer at room temperature that uses a localized pulse electrode electro-deposition between two coherent twin boundaries. The nanotwinned copper material printed by the researchers turned out to be fully dense and contained almost no impurities with very little defects. The material also showed no interface between the layers and was found to possess good mechanical such as tensile strength, hardness, and electrical, such as conductivity, properties. The final development that is discussed in the paper is a new method developed my Deshpande and Hsu called acoustoplastic metal direct-wire(Deshpande and Hsu 2018). Here inter and intra layer mass transport which results in metallurgical bonding across tiny voxels were obtained. When the voxels were forming, the temperature rose by 5C from the ambient room temperature of 25C. In addition to the temperature increase, acoustic energy-induced microstructural changes during the process were also observed. This work suggests that feasibility of a metal fusion at room temperature but also the a new micro structural transformation process that is currently being investigated.

Process Applications in Industry

In the past few years, metal 3D printing has become increasingly popular and this is due to each metal offering a unique set of practical as well as aesthetic properties in a variety of applications. With it’s rapid growth and simplicity of use, this renowned technology has found several applications. One of the key hot topics and its applications comes in aerospace and defense. From maintenance centers, naval ships and military outposts, 3D metal printing systems are changing everything from fleet management workflow to maintaining huge inventory of quick replacement parts on demand. Rapid 3D metal printing is having a significant effect on battlefield armor, ballistic munitions and weapons. From the aerospace sector, turbine blades, aircraft frames and even jet engines are slowing moving away from traditional methods and looking to be rapidly developed by 3D metal printing. Most of the alloys in the aerospace or defense sectors aluminum based. Another rapidly developing market for 3D metal additive manufacturing comes from medical device applications. Technology has been optimized for biocompatible material powder such as titanium which target specific properties that generate response from neighboring cells and tissues of orthopedic implants such as hip or knee.

Process Modeling and Simulation

Process modeling and simulation, include building plan and operation optimization, are essential for AM system. Under certain performance requirements, it can provide the required parameters, such as temperatures, droplet sizes, shape accuracy etc. There are a variety of approaches for the process modeling of additive manufacturing (AM) of metals. With all of the benefits of additive manufacturing including but not limited to creating extremely complex structures, it is very important to understand how the material will perform in this new state. Another huge benefit of Additive Manufacturing is that it allows you to design the material properties based on things like the microstructure to meet performance requirements (Francois, MM et al. 2017). Meeting these performance requirements will only be doable if the AM of metals has an accurate way of modeling the process. The essential in determining the resulting material properties is the thermal history generated by AM.

The material properties include micro-structure, residual stress, distortion etc. There are two main types of technologies relating to additive metal manufacturing and these are the powder-bed method and the directed energy deposition method. For the powder-bed method, a thin layer of powder is laid down and then melted with a laser; for the directed energy deposition method powder or wire is fed and the laser heat deposits the material immediately. When focusing on a macro scale, the main simulations of solidification processes occur utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Software. The stresses are computed using Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) Software. The CFD software solves a system of non-linear equations representing motions of fluids and phase changes. The FEA software does thermomechanical modeling to look at heat transfer and deformation (Francois, MM et al. 2017). CFD and FEA need to work together to help predict behavior of the component in application. When simulating the Powder-Bed method, models look at the interaction between the laser and the powder, the vaporization effects, and the effect of the laser energy input. The models look at temperature of the melt pool and can be used to study the part density and surface finish (both of which are important for application). For direct energy deposition, a model of the mass source and the added heat is required. One software used is called Truchas, which is a thermos-mechanical modeling tool used to simulate this process.

Looking at the models created by these methods, you can adjust the machine parameters so that your finished components will meet all the appropriate material properties requirements and better predict how the component will behave under the stresses of its application. The use of a Finite Element heat transfer model can predict the temperature fields used to predict grain growth during the AM process. This information can be used to predict the mechanical behavior and help determine points of fatigue cracking which has a huge use in determining whether the process will be viable for a specific application (Liu, Wing et al. 2018) One method used to model metal AM is kinetic Monte Carlo. For AM of metals, the different heat sources can cause extreme changes in the microstructure. One difficult relationship to determine is that between the grain size and shape of the metal and the temperature profiles. The kinetic Monte Carlo model can be used to predict this three – dimensional grain structure analyzing the molten zones and grain boundaries (Rodgers, Theron et al. 2017).

Another approach comes from modeling using the Multivariate Gaussian Processes (MVGPs). This approach looks at the thermal history of the deposited material and can give a comprehensive understanding of the thermo-physical factors the material deposited is subjected too. The MVGPs can compare parameters of models to experiments to help predict characteristics of the melted material. The MVGPs will allow a limited number of experiments to give the base for modeling and predicting behavior of other scenarios where things like material and material properties are changed. (Mahmoudi, M et al. 2018). Overall, these methods show a small glimpse into the modeling of metal AM. Some companies including 3DSim and Sigma Labs Inc. are working on the software development for metal printing process, however, concurrent process simulation and modeling still need a lot more research. The concise point is that an accurate model is necessary to help predict the future of metal AM and how its uses will change the world of manufacturing. Helping predict the behavior of AM through these modeling examples will prove to show how endless the possibilities of AM truly is.

Process Variations & Challenges

Metal based additive manufacturing is emerging as the next generation in parts manufacturing. Aerospace, defense and medical devices are looking to develop new conceptual designs and products using metal based additive manufacturing due to its speed and flexibility. However, this process is not without its fault. Variations have been recorded showing inadequate control over dimensional tolerances, surface roughness, porosity, and other defects in built parts. It is possible to control these variables using real-time processes that currently lack adequate process measurement methods. Product quality is one of the most important consideration when producing any product for commercial use. Quality drives customer satisfaction which in turn drives success in a competitive market.

To achieve any of these critical qualities in a product, manufacturing control has to be optimised. Currently, metal based additive layer manufacture has been utilised to produce parts for aerospace, tool making, dental and medical industries. Here, this section will talk about some of the the variation that occur with undertaking of an metal additive manufacturing process using process control parameters. Process variables such as feed stock, thermal conductivity, and material delivery rates are only some of the many process variations /challenges which result in quality issues in not only metal additive manufacturing but also in traditional manufacturing methods such as casting . All of these and more have various effects on dimensional tolerances, porosity and other defects in build parts. (O’Regan, Prickett et al. 2016) Feedstock is established as being vitally important to the quality of a part. Material suppliers provide composition limits, size distribution and spherical measurements, but do not provide information on the stock condition. The size distribution has been found to be a major factor in producing dense parts and that recycling the powder can increase the size of the powder particles. Investigations in powder size distribution have found that with an increase of powder size there is an increase in part porosity.(O’Regan, Prickett et al. 2016)

Thermal conductivity effects the finish on a build. When the build process occurs, and an object is being produced there is a major difference in the thermal coefficients between powder and the consolidated metallic material. The consolidated material acts as a heat sink and is more conductive than the powder surrounding it. A large differential in temperature between the powder and the consolidated metallic material can cause the “edge-effect”. Random-fill scan strategies were found to minimize the high ridges from the surface because heat could be dissipated more evenly across the build surface. (O’Regan, Prickett et al. 2016)


We learned a lot of theories and got to know a lot of psychologists who made an ...

We learned a lot of theories and got to know a lot of psychologists who made an effort to explain the way children feel. There are 3 grand theories; Psychoanalysis (Freud), Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner, Pavlov) and Cognitive (Planet). All this 3 theories explain the development of children from different prospective. Fraud’s theory of psychoanalysis becomes clear as to how he construed human character. Freud believed that human nature is basically deterministic, and largely dependent on the unconscious mind.

Irrational forces and unconscious motivations drive the human mind to a unique conduct and performance. He claimed that unconscious mind affects the largest part of our thoughts and behavior and that all our emotions and actions have causes In our unconscious mind. Another clients Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Fraud’s theory of psychosocial stages, Erosion’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifep. One of Erosion’s theories points is ego identity. Ego Identity is the sense of oneself as a distinct continuous entity.

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According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and Information we acquire In our dally Interactions with others. This means that Erikson feels that you are not necessarily born the way you are: you area born one way but things, and situations change who you are. I totally agree with Erosion’s theory because I also think that people change, and nothing stays the same. He also pointed out the importance of culture and family. From my point of view, family and culture have a great influence in the child’s fife.

If it weren’t for my family I wouldn’t be the person I am today. Cognitive development Is the development of thought processes, Including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Before Piglet’s work, the common assumption in psychology was that children are merely less competent thinkers than adults. Pigged showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults. According to Pigged, children are born with a very basic mental structure.

Bigotry, believed that every aspect of children’s cognitive development Is embedded in social context. He believed that children learn via guided participation which I think Is the best way to help your child. One day when I have my own kid I will surely remember and use Viscosity theory to help my child make her/his cognitive development easier and more effective. 2. There are number of important Issues that made me think throughout the semester. The major questions include the following: Does development occur slowly and smoothly, or do changes happen in stages?

Do early holding experiences have the greatest Impact on development, or are later events equally Important? Some theories of development argue that changes are simply a matter of quantity, children display more of certain skills as they grow older. Other theories outline a series of sequential stages in which skills emerge at certain points of development. To my mind, from the very first day the child is born, he starts developing. The first 6 years of a child are the most active developmental years. After 6 years their development still continues and they master more skills as they grow older.

A second Important consideration In developmental psychology Involves the relative importance to early experiences versus those that occur later in life. Psychoanalytic theorists tend to focus upon events that occur in early childhood. According to Freud, much of a child’s personality is completely established by the age of five. If this is indeed the case, those who have experienced deprived or abusive childhoods might never adjust or develop normally. I don’t agree with Fraud because Many people with less-that-perfect childhoods go on to develop normally into well- adjusted adults.


In 1981, Hideo Kodama studied and published the first printed solid model in Jap ...

In 1981, Hideo Kodama studied and published the first printed solid model in Japan. The appropriate terms to describe technologies that build 3D objects by adding layers of material are known as Rapid Prototyping, Additive Manufacturing, and 3D Printing (Types of 3D printers). However, six years later, Charles Hull an American inventor created the first SLA printer around 1987. Which was the first device of its kind to be able to print a virtual file, and the cost to purchase one was around $300k (Flynt). Nowadays, this type of technology plays an important role in the economy, because it became a useful tool for many work areas such as engineers, scientist, and designers.

Additive manufacturing is the ramification of manufacturing technology that includes 3D printing. AM is the current terminology established by the ATSM international (Crawford). The term refers to the process of creating an object by adding layers. The earliest use of additive manufacturing was during late 80s and early 90s in rapid prototyping. This allowed manufactures to experience more physically the prototypes before getting to the final product. Shortening reproduction time than with any other tool.

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However, rapid prototyping uses computer-aided design (CAD) software, which allows designers to create models, then machines follow the software patterns to determine how to build the object. The process of creating the object is known as “printing” its cross segments layer by layer is known as 3D printing (Crawford). There is some of basic principles behind additive manufacturing which was first observe in caves, by dripping water that create layers and layers of minerals deposits, therefore accumulate to form stalagmites and stalactites . In contrast, to these natural formations, 3D printers add new layers to get a precise object (Crawford). There are many reasons why this type of printing is growing exponentially. One reason relies on prototype and parts for large industry, like automobile industry. Also, it can be used in the medical field to create prosthetic parts, or even to make furniture, sculptures or some large-scale product improvement. Another advantage of creating objects using 3D printing technology instead of traditional manufacturing methods is the reduction of waste. As the construction material is added layer after layer, the waste is almost zero, and during the production, it is used only the material needed for obtaining the final object (Pîrjan and Petro?anu). However, there are some disadvantages and limitations like any other technology.

The lack of regulations regarding 3D printing, for example anyone could print guns or military parts, even drugs and chemical weapons. In order to prevent this, some rules and limitations must be done such as software limitations and parental control. This type of printing continues to develop increasingly due to the affordable and accessible ways to produce prototypes in industrial scales. Nowadays, in some school 3D printing is already available for projects. Yet, this type of technology is still expensive for most of the people in both equipment and materials. For example, products like the affordable 3D printing at home can cost around $9000. Still, people love the idea of being able to make all kinds of custom products such as jewelry, household items, or even a complete house, drones or human parts. There seems to be no limitations. In the end, technology is in constant evolution where people prefer an effortless way to create things, environmentally and user-friendly.


People commit fraud all the time, so why give someone an opportunity to do so? H ...

People commit fraud all the time, so why give someone an opportunity to do so? However 3D printers allow sketched out blueprints to become 3D objects. A 3D printer allows the designer to design an object of any choice, such as a pen or maybe even a box. According to the article 3D Printers, Evasive Entrepreneurs, and the Future of Tech Regulation, there are hardly any regulations when dealing with a 3D printer. If there is a 3D printer being used in a home, there aren’t any regulations to what a user can print. With a blueprint anyone can print whatever is sketched out, and the object would come out the exact same. 3D printing has the potential to be dangerous, and should be banned, due to printing dangerous products, counterfeit objects, and illegal objects/products people can sell.

Starting with, 3D printers are harmful to our population and environment. With little regulations on 3D printers, allows people all over the world easy access to printing dangerous products/objects. As an example in the article “Proliferation of Cheap 3-D Printers Raises Security Concerns.” by Stew Magnuson, it says “When a man in may demonstrated that he could build a plastic gun from a 3-D printer and fire at least one shot from the homemade device, the story sent off alarm bells on Capitol Hill.” (14). Just by reading that short section from the article shows how harmful 3D printers can be to our population, because by being able to print off dangerous objects that easily puts everyone around us at harm. Not only does printing certain objects put others at harm, but printing could also put that individual at harm also.

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Philip Ball says in the article “Material Witness: The Complex Cost of Faking it.” that, “The company hopes to reduce rhino poaching by providing a synthetic alternative that, by some accounts, is virtually indistinguishable in composition, appearance and smell from the real thing.” (660). Therefore 3D printing would be just as easy for anyone else to print something off that’s completely fake and act as the object/product is completely real. For example, anyone could easily print fake money and go buy something from a store, and most likely there would be zero suspension from the cashier. By printing out fake money could cause many different problems, such as, buying something very valuable and expensive from someone with that fake, would not only put a huge damper on whoever’s they bought from, but also the person who used the fake money, because that’s considered fraud, which would end with jail time. Also, 3D printing gives anyone the opportunity to print identical to a blueprint. Due to being able to print identical objects, it could lead to selling fake objects for more than they’re worth.

Finally, 3D printing makes taking illegal substances and objects as easy as baking a cake. In the article “Application of Three- Dimensional Printing for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System”, by Nitin B Eharbe, says “Khaled et al. used 3D extrusion printing technique to prepare five-in-one dose combination polypill with well – defined immediate release (IR) and sustained release (SR) profiles.” (5). By reading that sentence from the article, just goes to show that if anyone really wants any illegal substance bad enough, that it’s possible for anyone to get the illegal product such as dangerous drugs, etc. Therefore printing illegal products is just one google search away, and just like that the printing formula is in someone’s hands. Not long after someone printing an illegal substance, could affect or harm whoever the drug is passed to. 3D printers make drug intake an easier process than what it already is.

However, 3D printing does an outstanding job for big and even small businesses, such as, good quality products, less equipment having to be bought, etc. But all in all the cons about a 3D printer outweigh the good. 3-Dimensional printers bring harm to more of our population than anyone can count on two hands. 3D printers could also affect business, because there could be copyright problems, which could put a huge pause on a project that could’ve been huge. Also, if one thing messes up with the printing process, it could affect the whole business as a whole no matter if the problem is small or big. Therefore 3D printers do more harm to the business than any good.

In conclusion, People commit Fraud daily. Why give anyone an open opportunity by handing anyone a product that will help them commit fraud. Due to printing dangerous products, counterfeit objects, and illegal objects/products people can sell, just goes to show how dangerous 3D printers can be to our surroundings and others. 3D printers Over all 3D printing has the potential to be dangerous, and should be banned.


3D bioprinting is one of the most anticipating and promising technological advan ...

3D bioprinting is one of the most anticipating and promising technological advancements of all time. According to the US National Library of Medicine, 3D bioprinting is “a manufacturing method in which objects are made by fusing or depositing materials—such as plastic, metal, ceramics, powders, liquids, or even living cells—in layers to produce a 3D object” (Ventola, 2014, para 2). Is With the capability of using real cells, 3D bioprinting will make it possible to create living tissue. This will help build real organs and skin cells. Sometimes, in certain situations, researchers and doctors can also use regular 3D printing for skeletal support. In a 2018 surgery, a group pediatric surgeons from Georgia Institute of Technology used a 3D printed tracheal splint to assist a 7-month-old child to breathe (Toon, 2018, para 1).

The team was able to make multiple different test splints at a low-cost rate because of the inexpensive materials used. Other ways 3D bioprinting could save someone’s life is the organ crisis. According to UNOS database, “on average 20 people die each day while waiting for a transplant (Data, 2018, page 1). 3D printing can fix this issue by scanning the organ and making a specific match for that patient. Another way 3D printing can help is prosthetics. According to e-NABLE contributors from the US department of health and human services, “3D-printable prosthetics are changing the face of medicine, as engineers and physicians are able to develop prosthetics that are fully customized to the wearer.” (e-NABLE, N.D, page 1). With the use of 3D printing, Prosthetics will become more customizable, comfortable, more appealing to the wearer, and have more flexibility. 3D Bioprinting will revolutionize health care in the future because it will provide a new form of skeletal support, help the organ shortage crisis, and also improve the use of prosthetics.

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The most important way 3D bioprinting will revolutionize healthcare is that it could solve the organ crisis. By solving the organ crisis, it is potentially helping one of the largest medical crises in the US, kidney disease. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, “More than 661,000 Americans have kidney failure. Of these, 468,000 individuals are on dialysis, and roughly 193,000 live with a functioning kidney transplant” (Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States, 2016, para 3). If 3D bioprinting was available to these patients, then the number of those on Dialysis would decrease immensely. Not only would the number of patients on dialysis decrease, but also the need for donors, as well as, the number of patients on the UNOS transplant list. 81.3% of the UNOS list consists of patients waiting for a new kidney; This means that there are 95,249 patients worldwide hoping for a new kidney (Waiting list candidates by organ type, 2015, page 1). This is just one way 3D bioprinting will help solve the organ crisis.

Another large impact it would have would be lowering the death rate of transplant patients. As previously stated, the amount of deaths of patients per day who are waiting for an organ is around 20. For kidney patients specifically, it takes around 3-6 years to get a new kidney donor (The Kidney Transplant Waitlist, 2016, para 10). With the use of 3D bioprinting, it is possible to take real cells and turn it into ink form. When the cells are being printed, they eventually grow into living tissue. These tissues can be specified for certain organs like livers, lungs, Pancreases, Hearts, and Kidneys. So if it is able to help organs, what else can it help?

An equally important way that 3D bioprinting will revolutionize healthcare is by providing a new form of skeletal support. Like stated before, 3D printing can massively help support bones and at a low cost. Approximately 6 million Americans break a bone each year (Aids for One Armed Tasks, n.d., para. 2). With the use of 3D printing splints, supports, braces, and even replacement bones can be created. Visual representations are used for students to examine and learn from. Although that is already a thing, with 3D printing you can get visual insight for each cavity and vein without needing it to be handmade. 3D printing for bone cancer is also very promising. A technique would be to replace the part of the bone with the tumor with a 3D printed structure.

Ultimately defeating the tumor before it spreads farther or deeper (3D printing of high-strength bioscaffolds for the synergistic treatment of bone cancer, 2018, para. 1). Another great benefit for our skeletal system is the patching of skull fractures, cracks, or holes. For an example, if someone were to get in a car accident and break their cheekbone, or if someone were to have a sport-related injury and crack open their skull, 3D printing would be the best, cheapest, and most effective option to choose. We already have that technology now, but 3D printing will be able to enhance the structure of it. It could be lighter in weight, and thinner. If the damage done to the skull exceeds just the roundness and perhaps travels into the eye socket or nose, 3D printing would be the better option because it would be the fit the exact measurements and fit more flush with one’s skull (Bone Machine: 3D Printing is Revolutionizing Plastic Surgery, 2017, page 1). Finally, doctors could bioprint a mock up a face of what someone would look like after reconstructive surgery (Jeffrey Spiegel, 2016, para. 1).

Lastly, 3D bioprinting will improve the use of prosthetics. 3D printing even expands to prosthetics and is extremely beneficial to it. One of the main benefits of 3D printing across all fields is the cost efficiency. People are usually afraid of the expenses of prosthetics due to how much they really do cost (Advantages of 3D printed Prosthetics, 2018, para. 2). Although, with 3D printed prosthetics, the materials are cheaper, and the manufacturing process is way faster. A 3D printed limb could be made within a day, but traditional prosthetics, the process could take up a few days, weeks, or months. Also, with traditional prosthetics, there can be a wait list just like organ transplants that will just add to the production time (Advantages of 3D printed Prosthetics, 2018, para.3). Another issue with prosthetics is the amount of time you can use it. When children with missing limbs grow up, they are just like any other child, they grow. So with children, a prosthetic can only last 3 years (How Long Will a Prosthesis Last? n.d., para. 1) While an adult prosthetic still would only last 5 years.

Customization for prosthetics is very important for most patients to most people too. It needs to fit perfectly and be able to function the way they want it. It can even get down to the color if they want. When a patient is consulting with the doctor they can provide the color, look, and fit of the prosthetic. The materials are also able to be changed too (Advantages of 3D printed Prosthetics, 2018, para.4) 3D printed prosthetics has already been approved and is being used in multiple applications every day in the world of prosthetics. It will only get better from here because of technology advancing every day. In the near future, we will have full bionic limbs that will be just as capable if not more capable than the average limb.

Generally speaking, 3D printing and bioprinting will do great things for the healthcare field in the upcoming future. Not only could this advancement solve the organ crisis, but also bring hope for patients everywhere. 3D printing and bioprinting could also bring a new wave of skeletal support for patients. On top of that, it can provide help towards plastic surgery, rehabilitation, and prosthetics. Doctors and researchers still have a long road ahead of them before 3D printing and bioprinting is completely perfected. But, when it is perfected, the healthcare field will improve greatly.